Manual Taxi! Urban Economies and the Social and Transport Impacts of the Taxicab (Transport and Society)

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  1. Article Metrics
  2. Taxi! Urban Economies and the Social and Transport Impacts of the Taxicab - CRC Press Book
  3. The Rise of Ride Sharing in Urban Transport: Threat or Opportunity?
  4. The Rise of Ride Sharing in Urban Transport: Threat or Opportunity?

Once built, the infrastructure will require operating and maintenance costs, adding to the total cost of public transport. Sometimes governments subsidize infrastructure by providing it free of charge, just as is common with roads for automobiles. Interchanges are locations where passengers can switch from one public transport route to another.

This may be between vehicles of the same mode like a bus interchange , or e. It can be between local and intercity transport such as at a central station or airport. Timetables or 'schedules' in North American English are provided by the transport operator to allow users to plan their journeys.

They are often supplemented by maps and fare schemes to help travelers coordinate their travel. Online public transport route planners help make planning easier. Mobile apps are available for multiple transit systems that provide timetables and other service information and, in some cases, allow ticket purchase, some allowing to plan your journey, with time fares zones eg. Services are often arranged to operate at regular intervals throughout the day or part of the day known as clock-face scheduling.

Often, more frequent services or even extra routes are operated during the morning and evening rush hours. Coordination between services at interchange points is important to reduce the total travel time for passengers. This can be done by coordinating shuttle services with main routes, or by creating a fixed time for instance twice per hour when all bus and rail routes meet at a station and exchange passengers.

There is often a potential conflict between this objective and optimising the utilisation of vehicles and drivers.

Article Metrics

The main sources of financing are ticket revenue, government subsidies and advertising. The percentage of revenue from passenger charges is known as the farebox recovery ratio. A limited amount of income may come from land development and rental income from stores and vendors, parking fees, and leasing tunnels and rights-of-way to carry fiber optic communication lines. Most—but not all—public transport requires the purchase of a ticket to generate revenue for the operators. Tickets may be bought either in advance, or at the time of the journey, or the carrier may allow both methods.

Passengers may be issued with a paper ticket, a metal or plastic token , or a magnetic or electronic card smart card , contactless smart card. Sometimes a ticket has to be validated, e. Tickets may be valid for a single or return trip, or valid within a certain area for a period of time see transit pass. The fare is based on the travel class, either depending on the traveled distance, or based on zone pricing.

The tickets may have to be shown or checked automatically at the station platform or when boarding, or during the ride by a conductor. Operators may choose to control all riders, allowing sale of the ticket at the time of ride. Alternatively, a proof-of-payment system allows riders to enter the vehicles without showing the ticket, but riders may or may not be controlled by a ticket controller ; if the rider fails to show proof of payment, the operator may fine the rider at the magnitude of the fare.

Multi-use tickets allow travel more than once.

In addition to return tickets, this includes period cards allowing travel within a certain area for instance month cards , or during a given number of days that can be chosen within a longer period of time for instance eight days within a month. Passes aimed at tourists, allowing free or discounted entry at many tourist attractions, typically include zero-fare public transport within the city. Period tickets may be for a particular route in both directions , or for a whole network. A free travel pass allowing free and unlimited travel within a system is sometimes granted to particular social sectors, for example students, elderly, children, employees job ticket and the physically or mentally disabled.

Zero-fare public transport services are funded in full by means other than collecting a fare from passengers, normally through heavy subsidy or commercial sponsorship by businesses. Several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their entire bus networks to zero-fare.

The only European capital with free public transport is Tallinn. Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than city-wide systems. There are also zero-fare airport circulators and university transportation systems. Governments frequently opt to subsidize public transport for social, environmental or economic reasons. Common motivations include the desire to provide transport to people who are unable to use an automobile [23] and to reduce congestion, land use and automobile emissions.

Subsidies may take the form of direct payments for financially unprofitable services, but support may also include indirect subsidies. For example, the government may allow free or reduced-cost use of state-owned infrastructure such as railways and roads, to stimulate public transport's economic competitiveness over private transport, that normally also has free infrastructure subsidized through such things as gas taxes.

Other subsidies include tax advantages for instance aviation fuel is typically not taxed , bailouts if companies that are likely to collapse often applied to airlines and reduction of competition through licensing schemes often applied to taxis and airlines. Private transport is normally subsidized indirectly through free roads and infrastructure, [25] as well as incentives to build car factories [26] and, on occasion, directly via bailouts of automakers.

Land development schemes may be initialized, where operators are given the rights to use lands near stations, depots, or tracks for property development. Some supporters of mass transit believe that use of taxpayer capital to fund mass transit will ultimately save taxpayer money in other ways, and therefore, state-funded mass transit is a benefit to the taxpayer.

Some research has supported this position, [30] but the measurement of benefits and costs is a complex and controversial issue. Relative to other forms of transportation, public transit is safe with a low crash risk and secure with low rates of crime. Although relatively safe and secure, public perceptions that transit systems are dangerous endure. Some systems attract vagrants who use the stations or trains as sleeping shelters, though most operators have practices that discourage this. Although there is continuing debate as to the true efficiency of different modes of transportation, mass transit is generally regarded as significantly more energy efficient than other forms of travel.

A study by the Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute found that public transportation in the U. S uses approximately half the fuel required by cars, SUV's and light trucks.

Taxi! Urban Economies and the Social and Transport Impacts of the Taxicab - CRC Press Book

In addition, the study noted that "private vehicles emit about 95 percent more carbon monoxide, 92 percent more volatile organic compounds and about twice as much carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide than public vehicles for every passenger mile traveled". Studies have shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between urban population density and energy consumption per capita , and that public transport could facilitate increased urban population densities, and thus reduce travel distances and fossil fuel consumption.

Supporters of the green movement usually advocate public transportation, because it offers decreased airborne pollution compared to automobiles.

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A study conducted in Milan, Italy, in during and after a transportation strike serves to illustrate the impact that mass transportation has on the environment. Air samples were taken between 2 and 9 January, and then tested for methane, carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons NMHCs , and other gases identified as harmful to the environment. The figure below is a computer simulation showing the results of the study "with 2 January showing the lowest concentrations as a result of decreased activity in the city during the holiday season.

The Rise of Ride Sharing in Urban Transport: Threat or Opportunity?

Based on the benefits of public transport, the green movement has affected public policy. The initiative cites the use of public transportation as being a means of reducing traffic congestion, providing an economic boost to the areas of job relocation, and most importantly, contributing to a green environment by reducing carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions. Using public transportation can result in a reduction of an individual's carbon footprint. When all three of these are considered, it is estimated that 37 million metric tons of CO 2 will be saved annually.

In order to compare energy impact of public transportation to private transportation, the amount of energy per passenger mile must be calculated. The reason that comparing the energy expenditure per person is necessary is to normalize the data for easy comparison.

Here, the units are in per p-km read as person kilometer or passenger kilometer. In terms of energy consumption, public transportation is better than individual transport in a personal vehicle. Rail provides rapid movement into and out of the city of London while busing helps to provide transport within the city itself.

The Rise of Ride Sharing in Urban Transport: Threat or Opportunity?

As of —, the total energy cost of London's trains was 15 kWh per p-km, about 5 times better than a personal car. Efficiencies of transport in Japan in were 68 kWh per p-km for a personal car, 19 kWh per p-km for a bus, 6 kWh per p-km for rail, 51 kWh per p-km for air, and 57 kWh per p-km for sea. Public transportation also provides an arena to test environmentally friendly fuel alternatives, such as hydrogen-powered vehicles.

Swapping out materials to create lighter public transportation vehicles with the same or better performance will increase environmental friendliness of public transportation vehicles while maintaining current standards or improving them. Informing the public about the positive environmental effects of using public transportation in addition to pointing out the potential economic benefit is an important first step towards making a difference. Urban space is a precious commodity and public transport utilises it more efficiently than a car dominant society, allowing cities to be built more compactly than if they were dependent on automobile transport.

This approach significantly reduces urban sprawl. Public land planning for public transportation can be difficult but it is the State and Regional organizations that are responsible to planning and improving public transportation roads and routes. With public land prices booming, there must be a plan to using the land most efficiently for public transportation in order to create better transportation systems.